Ethiopia Quick Facts

In General
         Ethiopia is ranked by the UN’s Human Development Index as one of the four poorest countries in the world
         Annual per capita income is less than $160
         47% of the population lives below the poverty rate
         85% of the population lives in rural areas and is dependent on small-scale, water-dependent agriculture for a living
         Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in sub-Saharan Africa
         Population: 74.2 million
         Population growth: 2.7% annually
         Average Ethiopian woman gives birth to 5.9 children
         Population is expected to double in the next 20-30 years
Ethnic Groups
         Oromo 32.1%, Amara 30.1%, Tigraway 6.2%, Somalie 5.9%, Guragie 4.3%, Sidama 3.5%, Welaita 2.4%, other 15.4% (1994 census)
         Christian 60.8% (Orthodox 50.6%, Protestant 10.2%), Muslim 32.8%, traditional 4.6%, other 1.8% (1994 census)

Child Health
         1 in 10 children die before their first birthday
         1 in 6 children die before age 5
         Over 50% of children are stunted
         Malnutrition is the underlying cause of more than half of all child deaths
General Health/Life Expectancy
         Average life expectancy is 48 for men, 50 for women
         1 physician for every 34,988 people
         Population per hospital bed:  4,141
         1 in 4 women dies in childbirth or from a pregnancy-related illness
         22% of the population has access to improved drinking sources:  81% in urban areas and 11% in rural
         13% of the population has access to adequate sanitation facilities:  44% in urban areas and 7% in rural
         Only 50% of children attend primary school (K-3)
         Average class size in government schools – 85-100 children
         Overall literacy rate is 42%, with many more girls and women illiterate than men

         44% of Ethiopia’s population is under age 15
         Estimated number of street children:  100,000 nationwide, 40,000 in Addis
Gender Issues
         Unlawful kidnapping and forced seizure of young girls for marriage is common in certain parts of Ethiopia, especially in the SNNPR (13%) and Oromia (11%).
         80% of women and about 50% of men believe that there are at least some situations in which a husband is justified in beating his wife.
         More than half of girls ages 15-19 have been circumcised.  About one quarter of girls ages 15-24 believe the practice should continue
         Rape is a serious problem.  A study on street violence among girls ages 10-24 in Addis Ababa found that 15% of the respondents had been raped, and during their first sexual activity, 43% had been coerced into sex.
         Polygamy is still widely practiced in some regions of Ethiopia
         Median age of marriage for women age 25-49 is 16.1 years.  The median age is highest in Addis at 21.9 years and lowest in the Amhara region at 14.1 years.
Environmental Issues
         Deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
         More than 60% of all people with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Although accurate statistics are hard to come by, it is estimated that approximately 4.4% of the population in Ethiopiais infected with AIDS (CIA World Factbook) and that there are approximately 1 million AIDS orphans
         The HIV problem in Ethiopia has become a “feminine epidemic.” Girls ages 15-19 are seven times more likely to be HIV positive than boys the same age.  Women 20-24 years old are four times more likely to be infected than men the same age.  In addition to biological factors, young women are at increased risk of HIV transmission as they have earlier sexual debut than their male peers and marry older men
         Urban women are 12 times more likely to be infected than rural women.
         Unmarried, sexually active women have the highest risk of HIV infection, with a 9% prevalence rate.
        Despite the high awareness of HIV/AIDS, about one in four girls ages 15-19 does not believe there is a way to avoid HIV/AIDS
          In general, knowledge of condoms and the role they can play in preventing       the AIDS virus transmission is limited.  Sixty percent of women and 30% of men are unaware that using a condom during sexual intercourse can reduce the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.