Ethiopia is ranked by the UN’s Human Development Index as one of the four poorest countries in the world
Annual per capita income is less than $160
47% of the population lives below the poverty rate
85% of the population lives in rural areas and is dependent on small-scale, water-dependent agriculture for a living
Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in sub-Saharan Africa
Population: 74.2 million
Population growth: 2.7% annually
Average Ethiopian woman gives birth to 5.9 children
Population is expected to double in the next 20-30 years
Oromo 32.1%, Amara 30.1%, Tigraway 6.2%, Somalie 5.9%, Guragie 4.3%, Sidama 3.5%, Welaita 2.4%, other 15.4% (1994 census)
Christian 60.8% (Orthodox 50.6%, Protestant 10.2%), Muslim 32.8%, traditional 4.6%, other 1.8% (1994 census)
1 in 10 children die before their first birthday
1 in 6 children die before age 5
Over 50% of children are stunted
Malnutrition is the underlying cause of more than half of all child deaths
General Health/Life Expectancy
Average life expectancy is 48 for men, 50 for women
1 physician for every 34,988 people
Population per hospital bed: 4,141
1 in 4 women dies in childbirth or from a pregnancy-related illness
22% of the population has access to improved drinking sources: 81% in urban areas and 11% in rural
13% of the population has access to adequate sanitation facilities: 44% in urban areas and 7% in rural
Only 50% of children attend primary school (K-3)
Average class size in government schools – 85-100 children
Overall literacy rate is 42%, with many more girls and women illiterate than men
44% of Ethiopia’s population is under age 15
Estimated number of street children: 100,000 nationwide, 40,000 in Addis
Unlawful kidnapping and forced seizure of young girls for marriage is common in certain parts of Ethiopia, especially in the SNNPR (13%) and Oromia (11%).
80% of women and about 50% of men believe that there are at least some situations in which a husband is justified in beating his wife.
More than half of girls ages 15-19 have been circumcised. About one quarter of girls ages 15-24 believe the practice should continue
Rape is a serious problem. A study on street violence among girls ages 10-24 in Addis Ababa found that 15% of the respondents had been raped, and during their first sexual activity, 43% had been coerced into sex.
Polygamy is still widely practiced in some regions of Ethiopia
Median age of marriage for women age 25-49 is 16.1 years. The median age is highest in Addis at 21.9 years and lowest in the Amhara region at 14.1 years.
Deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
More than 60% of all people with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Although accurate statistics are hard to come by, it is estimated that approximately 4.4% of the population in Ethiopiais infected with AIDS (CIA World Factbook) and that there are approximately 1 million AIDS orphans
The HIV problem in Ethiopia has become a “feminine epidemic.” Girls ages 15-19 are seven times more likely to be HIV positive than boys the same age. Women 20-24 years old are four times more likely to be infected than men the same age. In addition to biological factors, young women are at increased risk of HIV transmission as they have earlier sexual debut than their male peers and marry older men
Urban women are 12 times more likely to be infected than rural women.
Unmarried, sexually active women have the highest risk of HIV infection, with a 9% prevalence rate.
Despite the high awareness of HIV/AIDS, about one in four girls ages 15-19 does not believe there is a way to avoid HIV/AIDS
In general, knowledge of condoms and the role they can play in preventing the AIDS virus transmission is limited. Sixty percent of women and 30% of men are unaware that using a condom during sexual intercourse can reduce the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.